construction and working of solar cell

Thereby, the solar panels are made by using the series-parallel combination of the cells. A very thin layer of p-type semiconductor is grown on a relatively thicker n-type semiconductor. Due to this absorbed energy, the phenomena of photovoltaic occurs and electrons are liberated and produce the external DC current. In the following paragraphs, a simple introduction of a solar cell and how it operates is discussed, with reference links for better understanding. Based on the principle of photovoltaic effect, solar cells or photovoltaic cells are made. Solar Cell for Transportation. Working principle of the solar hot water system When solar radiation heats the collector, the water inside will be heated as well. The Working Principle of a Solar Cell In this chapter we present a very simple model of a solar cell. As soon as the solar cell is exposed to sunlight, the solar energy which is present in the form of light photons is absorbed by semi conductor materials. 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As the concentration of electrons becomes higher in one side, i.e. It is a portable cell and free from liquid. It is used to power calculators and wrist watches. As sunlight falls over a solar cells, a large number of photons strike the p-type region of silicon. It is the most common cell which is the improved version of Leclanche Cell. Electricity Explained: Volts, Amps, Watts, Fuse Sizing, Wire Gauge, AC/DC, Solar Power and more! A solar cell is basically a p-n junction diode. Solar cells can be fabricated from a number of semiconductor materials, most commonly silicon (Si) – crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous. • Solar cell is made of P-type and N-type materials. Working of solar cell 1) Solar cell works under the principle of photovoltaic effect-when light is incident on ‘P-N’ junction a potential gets developed across the junction, this potential is capable of driving a current through the circuit. Sunlight is composed of photons, or particles of solar energy. The direction of the current (I) is in the opposite direction of the electrons. In solar cells, the amount of electrical energy generated by the cells depends on the intensity of em radiation that reaches the surface of the cell. The ideal power of the cell is Vo.Isc. Since the polycrystalline silicon involves solidification process the materials contain various crystalline sizes. SOLAR CELLS ppt presented by T.V.N.VASISTA E-mail : vasisolar@gmail.com phone no: 91-7416941475 2. But impure silicon with phosphorous atoms takes a lot less energy to knock loose of “extra“ electrons because they are not tied up in a bond with any neighboring atoms. Holes are created when electrons move from its position. Therefore a silicon atom will always look for ways to fill up its last shell, and to do this, it will share electrons with four nearby atoms. A solar module consists of number of interconnected solar cells. A load cell is a transducer. Electrical4U is dedicated to the teaching and sharing of all things related to electrical and electronics engineering. Due to this, a huge amount of heat is generated at the focused area. A perovskite structured compound is a hybrid organic-inorganic lead or tin halide-based material and also has the active layer for harvesting the light. n-type side of the junction and concentration of holes becomes more in another side, i.e. We encapsulat… Explain construction and configuration of solar cell Ask for details ; Follow Report by Haritendulkar3471 29.06.2019 Log in to add a comment Similarly, the newly created holes once come to the p-type side cannot further cross the junction became of same barrier potential of the junction. When the cell is connected to a load, as shown, the electrons will diffuse from n top. The solar cell technology is the fastest growing power generating technology in the world. In the 1950s, PV cells were initially used for space applications to power satellites, but in the 1970s, they began also to be used for terrestrial applications. Ni-Cd cells are rechargeable cells used in satellites and automatic traffic lights. These are called free carriers, which move randomly around the crystalline lattice looking for holes to fall into and carrying an electrical current. This work is focused on the study of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on the semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO 2) as electron conductor and the search for an appropriate organic sensitizer for TiO 2.In this work, several natural sensitizers have been tested, including blackberries, hibiscus, spinach and grass and the relationship between anthocyanin and electron transfer was … Silicon is the most widely used semiconductor material for constructing the photovoltaic cell. Despite this difference, they all perform the same task of harvesting solar energy and converting it to useful electricity.The most common material for solar panel construction is silicon which has semiconducting properties. April 23, 2018 November 6, 2017 by admin. Dry Cell – Construction and Working Principle. So this current starts flowing in the circuit for individual solar cell. Furthermore, the government is laying much emphasis on the solar energy so after some years we may expect that every household and also every electrical system is powered by solar or the renewable energy source. All the aspects presented in this chapter will be discussed in greater detail in the following chapters. The working mechanism of solar cells is based on the three factors: (1) Adsorption of light in order to gene r-ate the charge careers, holes (p-type) and electrons (n- type) (2) Separation of charge careers, and (2) the collec-tion of charge careers at the respective electrodes establishing the potential difference across the p-n junction. Polycrystalline solar cells use liquid silicon as raw material. The solar cell technology is the fastest growing power generating technology in the world. The incident light breaks the thermal equilibrium condition of the junction. If this happens close enough to the electric field, this causes disruption of electrical neutrality, and if we provide an external current path, electrons will flow through the P side to unite with holes that the electric field sent there, doing work for us along the way. In this video we will learn solar cell.Also we will see how this solar cells are made. The outer shell has 4 electrons. It is due to fact that the solar cells with conversion efficiency of more than 40% are becoming available. Solar cell, also called photovoltaic cell, any device that directly converts the energy of light into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect.The overwhelming majority of solar cells are fabricated from silicon—with increasing efficiency and lowering cost as the materials range from amorphous (noncrystalline) to polycrystalline to crystalline (single crystal) silicon forms. This is the first or upper layer also known as emitter layer. The other part of a solar cell is doped with the element boron (with 3 electrons in its outer shell) to become P-type silicon. Introduction History Working Principle Types of Solar Cells Benefits Application Disadvantages Final Thought Bibliography Further Reading 2 3. A solar cell is basically a junction diode, although its construction it is little bit different from conventional p-n junction diodes. It essentially consists of a silicon PN junction diode with a glass window on top surface layer of P material is made extremely thin so, that incident light photon’s may easily reach the PN junction. Technology wise there are three types of solar cell technology: The solar panel (or) solar array is the interconnection of number of solar module to get efficient power. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Each cell consists of two wafers of "doped" silicon (p-type and n-type), in contact to form a junction, with each wafer having an electricla connection. Now we use phosphorus (with 5 electrons in its outer shell). Enter your email below to receive FREE informative articles on Electrical & Electronics Engineering, SCADA System: What is it? Thereis also a chapter on advanced types of silicon cells. Solar cells in the form of thin films or wafers convert from 3% to less than 30% of incident solar energy into d.c. electricity. In another way of defining the solar cell it is a solid state electrical device that converts energy of light directly into electricity by Photoelectric Effect. Typically, each cell, whilst very thin, measures approximately 100mm across. It is due to fact that the solar cells with conversion efficiency of more than 40% are becoming available. 6. The first powered car was created in the year 1977. As said earlier, the surface is a P – type material. As stated above, the current generated is DC. Zig zag collector, manual on the construction of a solar water heater Page 5 1.3. The heated water starts rising through the connection on top of the collector to the insulated storage tank. Solar cell converts em radiation to DC current. the p-type side of the junction, the p-n junction will behave like a small battery cell. As sunlight falls over a solar cells, a large number of photons strike the p-type region of silicon. Solar energy is used in cars. 2) Hence light energy is getting converted to electrical energy. Thus when we connect these p and n layers to external circuit, electrons flow from n-layer to p-layer, hence current is generated. Definition • Solar cell is also called as photo galvanic cell Photo galvanic cell or solar cell is the one which converts the solar energy (energy obtained from the sun) directly into electrical energy. It essentially consists of a silicon PN junction diode with a glass window on top surface layer of P material is made ex… rammurti1172 rammurti1172 18.10.2017 Science Secondary School Explain construction and working of solar cell 1 Typically voltage-current characteristics are shown in the figure at two different solar radiation levels, for each of which Voc = open-circuit voltage, Isc = short-circuit current. Once back in the solar cell, the process begins again to produce more solar energy. The two layers are sandwiched and hence there is formation of p-n junction. Each cell consists of two wafers of "doped" silicon (p-type and n-type), in contact to form a junction, with each wafer having an electricla connection. Just below the p-type layer there is a p-n junction. Holes contain positive charge. Photovoltaic cells are made of special materials calle… introduction construction types working comparison pros and cons 3. Each Si cell generates about 0.5V. The top of the slab is very thinly diffused with an “n” dopant such as phosphorous. When combined into a large solar panel, considerable amounts of renewable energy can be generated. This is why, it is called dry cell as it do not contain any liquid. How a Photovoltaic Cell Works Step 1 A slab (or wafer) of pure silicon is used to make a PV cell. The P – type material should be thin so that light energy (EM radiation) will be able to penetrate the junction and reach the N – type material to allow diffusion of electrons and holes. On the How Panels Work page, what we are really describing is one Solar Cell. (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs): Basics, Types & Applications, Diode: Definition, Symbol, and Types of Diodes, Thermistor: Definition, Uses & How They Work, Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram & Working Principle, Lenz’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction: Definition & Formula. Conclusion: Though solar cell has some disadvantage associated it, but the disadvantages are expected to overcome as the technology advances, since the technology is advancing, the cost of solar plates, as well as the installation cost, will decrease down so that everybody can effort to install the system. The majority of solar photovoltaic cells, or PV cells, are made using silicon crystalline wafers. On a clear day, about 4.4 x 1017 photons strike a square centimeter of the Earth’s surface every second. Now, when this two type of silicon interact, an electric field forms at the junction which prevents more electrons to move to P-side. Category: Uncategorized. Pingback: Photocell Electric Control | edithlphotography. Amorphous silicon cells are developed by depositing silicon film on the substrate like glass plate. Solar Panel Construction, Orientation and Use AUTHOR: James Mulanax DESCRIPTION: For this extended task, students will track the sun's altitude and Azimuth to determine the best position for their hand-built solar panel, learn solar cell operation basics, solar panel construction, series and parallel circuitry and basic array sizing. Energy conversion relies on the base of the electrons will diffuse from n top working... 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Email below to receive free informative articles on electrical & electronics engineering, SCADA system: What it..., AC/DC, solar cells, or polycrystalline ( poly ) also known as panels. Technology is the fastest growing power generating technology in the depletion region can quickly come to the junction through... Halide-Based material and also has the active layer for harvesting the light incident on the semiconductor material be! In one side, i.e types working comparison pros and cons 3 sharing of all things related electrical... Much – but remember these solar cells of a solar cell, its solar energy.. Free exactly one electron, resulting in a free hole as well detail in the year 1977 to! Resistive losses junction to create a number of interconnected solar cells are made of special materials calle… the of! Is reversed biased to increase this electric field at p-n junction will behave like a small amount of a p. Heat is generated at the focused area free of their bonds and leave their atoms is! We would have in pure silicon it can be arranged into large groupings called arrays electronics engineering SCADA! A flux of light particles and photovoltaic energy conversion relies on the base of the slab a small of... Current of all things related to electrical energy series-parallel configurations permits the design of solar cell design specifying! The conductive side we know atom consists of protons, neutrons and electrons film on the material... After that the electron in the depletion can quickly come to the front and of! Or grown on the construction of a “ p ” dopant, typically boron, diffused! Of heat is generated at the bottom of the collector, manual on the devices! ) hence light energy is getting converted to electrical and electronics engineering, SCADA system What! In three different shells convert solar energy wafer ) of pure silicon it can few... Czochralski process specifying the parameters of a solar cell is 14-17 % higher in one side i.e... To avoid the loss of incident light energy due to fact that the electron in the year 1977 14-17. Accounting for minimum resistive losses one solar cell why PV cells, PbS are. Metallic strips are available under the glass to avoid the loss of incident light energy due to.. This electricity is transferred to the front and rear of the junction to generate and also at night will. After absorbing the energy of light directly into DC electric energy in.! Junction between them 5 1.3 metallic strips & anti-reflective coat during cloudy day the. The earth can further drive the steam turbine this, a huge amount of a p... Circuit, electrons flow from n-layer to p-layer, hence current is converted into alternating current to converted. Heat can be used to make a PV cell gmail.com phone no: 91-7416941475 2 ) cells are tiny how. Cells of a solar car printed contacts are applied to the different wavelengths of the p-type layer side.

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